International Air transport.
In recent years air freight has been developing rapidly and air carriers have been able to offer an ever widening range of services. Freight
costs can be paid in advance, at destination or against reimbursement. The main advantage of air freight is speed, which makes it invaluable for the carriage of high-value
products and perishable products such as fish, flowers, and other products
which have a short life span. The most often used Incoterm is
The AWB (Air Waybill) is issued by airlines in a set of 3 originals and minimum 6 copies. The air waybill can be issued by an airline agent as well.
IATA is an International trade body, created over 60 years ago by a Group of airlines. IATA represents some 230 airlines comprising 93% of scheduled international air traffic.
Example of the learning unit Multimodal Transport:
International road transport
Road freight is the only mode of transport perfectly suited to supply door-to-door services,
that is the products can be collected at the exporter's premises and delivered
directly to the importer by the same trailer. Road freight
is very convenient in terms of facilitating loading and unloading operations. Due to its flexibility, it is also an indispensable mode of transport for
factories that work on Just-In-Time (JIT) basis.
CMR Convention. This convention regulates international road traffic within Europe. The document used under this convention is the CMR Consignment Note, which evidences the existence of the contract of carriage and that the
have been received by the carrier.
TIR is a system involving the issue of a carnet to road hauliers which allows
loaded vehicles to cross national frontiers with minimum customs formalities.
The signatories of the convention are countries in Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and North America.
Rail transport is one of the safest modes of transport. It can carry
various consignments from small packages to containers. In terms of cargo
capacity rail transport can compete with marine transport. Due to its
environmental benefits, rail freight is being considered an alternative to road
freight in Europe. Rail freight is carried out under the document called the CIM
Rail Consignment Note.
Carriage by multimodal transport is the continuous movement of products by more
than one means of transport (marine, land, etc.) under one and the same document
and one contract of carriage. The definition of the United Nations Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods (1980) is as follows:
"International multimodal transport" means the carriage of products by at least two
different modes of transport on the basis of a multimodal transport contract
from a place in one country at which the products are taken in charge by the multimodal transport operator to a place designated for delivery situated in a
different country. The operations of pick-up and delivery of products carried out
in the performance of a unimodal transport contract, as defined in such
contract, shall not be considered as international multimodal transport."
The products carried by multimodal transport are normally palletized or
containerized. The advantages of using a container are:
- The time of loading and unloading is reduced up to 70 %;
- The manual operations of stevedores are reduced up to 70 %;
- The possibility of damages and thefts is reduced;
- Delivery periods and carriage charges are reduced;
- Paper work is simplified;
- A better tracking of the products in transit is provided (electronic services).
Multimodal transport operator (MTO) means any person who concludes a multimodal
transport contract and assumes responsibility for the performance thereof as a