Learning unit summary Multimodal Transport:
International Air transport.
In recent years air freight has been developing rapidly and air carriers have been able to offer an ever widening range of services. Freight
costs can be paid in advance, at destination or against reimbursement.
The main advantage of air freight is speed, which makes it invaluable for the carriage of high-value
products and perishable products such as fish, flowers, and other products
which have a short life span.
The most often used Incoterm is
The AWB (Air Waybill) is issued by airlines in a set of 3 originals and minimum 6 copies. The air waybill can be issued by an airline agent as well.
IATA (International Air Transport Association) is an International trade body, created over 60 years ago by a Group of airlines. IATA represents some 230 airlines comprising 93% of scheduled international air traffic.
International road transport
Road freight is the only mode of transport perfectly suited to supply door-to-door services,
that is the products can be collected at the exporter's premises and delivered
directly to the importer by the same trailer. Road freight
is very convenient in terms of facilitating loading and unloading operations. Due to its flexibility, it is also an indispensable mode of transport for factories that work on Just-In-Time basis.
CMR Convention. This convention regulates international road traffic within Europe. The document used under this convention is the CMR Consignment Note, which evidences the existence of the contract of carriage and that the
have been received by the carrier.
TIR is a system involving the issue of a carnet to road hauliers which allows
loaded vehicles to cross national frontiers with minimum customs formalities.
The signatories of the convention are countries in Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and North America.
Rail transport is one of the safest modes of transport. It can carry
various consignments from small packages to containers. In terms of cargo
capacity rail transport can compete with marine transport. Due to its
environmental benefits, rail freight is being considered an alternative to road
freight in Europe. Rail freight is carried out under the document called the CIM
Rail Consignment Note.