Subject Description: Marine Transport. Bill of Lading (B/L). Sea freight:
- Of all means of transport, marine transport carries the greatest volume of international trade in products.
- Marine transport is practically the most cost-effective ways of transporting large volumes of goods from one country to another.
- The main disadvantage of shipment by sea is that it is slow.
- Freight Forwarder. This is a party who acts as an intermediary between the exporter/importer and international shipping lines.
- The freight forwarder can also serve as a cargo consolidator and/or NVOCC (Non-Vessel Operator Common Carrier), who consolidates cargo not only for marine transport but other modes of transport as well.
- A Bill of Lading is a document issued by a carrier to confirm receipt of products to be transported to an agreed destination. This document also serves as a contract of carriage and represents title to the products.
- The marine transport document used by shipping lines is the marine/ocean bill of lading.
- The transport document used by charterers is the charter party bill of lading.
Sample of the Sub-subject: Marine Transport:
Shipping lines usually issue two or three original bills of lading, each of which can be used to claim ownership of the products. Therefore, the one who has the bill of lading has the title to the products. A bill of lading is a highly
valuable document, especially in documentary
methods of payment.
There are many international conventions on marine transport:
- Hague Rules (“the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to Bills of Lading”). These Rules govern liability for loss of or damage to products carried by sea under a bill of lading.
- Hague Visby Rules (“Brussels Protocol”). These Rules incorporate certain revisions to the Hague Rules, principally affecting limitation of carrier liability.
- Hamburg Rules were adopted in 1978. They radically alter the liability, which ship owners should bear for loss of or damage to products.
- London Convention “Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims” was signed in 1976. This Convention applies a virtually unbreakable right to limit liability and sets out the levels of limitation.
- H.N.S., “Convention on the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by
- Maritime transport in Africa
- China: Marine transport
- Ports of Russia
- Suez Canal
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