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Customs and the World Trade Organization

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Syllabus of the Subject: Customs and the WTO (World Trade Organization).

  1. The Role of the World Trade Organization in the Customs Procedures;
  2. The Multilateral Trading System;
  3. World Trade Organization Agreements;
    1. Tariffs;
    2. Agriculture;
    3. Standards and safety;
    4. Textiles;
    5. Anti-dumping, subsidies, and safeguards;
    6. Non-tariff barriers.
  4. Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures;
  5. Agreement on Customs Valuation
    1. Customs Valuation Rules;
    2. Customs Valuation Methods:
      1. Transaction value;
      2. Identical or similar goods;
      3. Deductive or computed method;
      4. Fall-back.
  6. Pre-shipment Inspection Agreement;
  7. Rules of Origin Agreement;
  8. Trade Facilitation
    1. Trade Facilitation Agreement;
    2. World Customs Organization (WCO);
    3. Revised Kyoto Convention;
    4. International Convention on the Harmonization of Frontier Controls of Goods (UNECE).
  9. Customs and Regional Trade Agreements;
  10. Customs Procedures and the Doha agenda.

The objectives of the subject “Customs and the World Trade Organization” are to understand the:

  1. Role of the World Trade Organization in the Customs Procedures;
  2. WTO Agreements;
  3. Fundamental concepts related to customs: non-tariff barriers, customs valuation, transaction value, pre-shipment inspection, rules of origin, and import licences;
  4. Customs Valuation Methods.

Customs and the World Trade Organization
Customs and the World Trade Organization (WTO) . Rules of origin. Tariffs. Import licensing procedures. Customs Valuation

Online Education (Courses, Masters, Doctorate): Foreign Trade Management

Online Student Master in International Business

The Subject “Customs and the World Trade Organization” belongs to the following Online Higher Educational Programs taught by EENI Global Business School:

Diploma: Foreign Trade.

Online Professional Diploma in International Trade

Courses: Export Assistant, Foreign Trade Management.

Online Education (Courses, Masters, Doctorate): Foreign Trade Assistant

Masters: International Business, Foreign Trade, International Transport.

Masters in International Business and Foreign Trade (MIB) - Online Education

Doctorate: Global Logistics, World Trade.

Professional Doctorate in International Business (DIB). Online Education

Learning materials in Courses, Masters, Doctorate in International Business and Foreign Trade in English or Study, Course Master Doctorate in International Business in French Douanes Study Master Doctorate in International Business in Spanish Aduanas Masters Foreign Trade in Portuguese Alfandegas.

Area of Knowledge: Foreign Trade.

Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) World Trade Organization (WTO)

Trade Facilitation Programs. TFA Agreement. Online Education (Courses, Masters, Doctorate)

Customs and the World Trade Organization

Import licensing

In Foreign Trade, import licensing are the administrative procedures that need the compliance of documentation to the administrative organization as a previous condition for the importation of products.

The Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures of the World Trade Organization refers to “import licensing should be simple, transparent and predictable.”

Customs valuation.

Customs valuation is a procedure applied by the Customs to find out the “Customs value of the imported products.”

In the case that the rate of duty is “ad valorem,” the customs value is necessary to find out the duty to be paid on an imported product.

For importers, the process of estimating the value of a product at customs can present some troubles.

The World Trade Organization Agreement on Customs Valuation aims for a fair, uniform and neutral system for the Customs Valuation.

The World Trade Organization Agreement on Customs Valuation defines that customs valuation should (excluding in specified circumstances) be based on the actual price of the products (usually marked on the invoice).

The following six methods are considered in the WTO Agreement on Customs:

  1. Transaction value;
  2. Transaction value of identical products;
  3. Transaction value of similar products;
  4. Deductive method;
  5. Computed method;
  6. Fall-back method.

Transaction value is the price paid by the importer to the benefit of the exporter for the imported products.

Pre-shipment inspection

When the exporter or the importer outsource to specialized private companies to control the shipment details (price, quantity, and quality) of the products.

The Pre-shipment Inspection Agreement recognizes that the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) principles and obligations apply to these pre-shipment activities.

Rules of Origin

The “Rules of origin” define where a product was produced. The concept of rules and certificate of origin is a fundamental pillar of the international trade rules (quotas, preferential tariffs, anti-dumping, or counter export subsidies).

Non-tariff Measures to Trade. Online Education (Courses, Masters, Doctorate)

Related subjects:

  1. Non-tariff Measures;
  2. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS)
    1. Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS).
  3. Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)
    1. Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT).
  4. Anti-dumping Measures and Safeguards
    1. Agreement on Safeguards (SG).
  5. Import Licensing and Quotas;
  6. Pre-shipment Inspection
    1. Agreement on Preshipment Inspection (PSI.
  7. Istanbul Convention.

(Source: World Trade Organization).

Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment (World Trade Organization)

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