Civilisations and Economic Integration

EENI - Business School.

Module: Civilisations, Religions, and Economic Integration. Syllabus:

  1. Civilisations in a globalised world
  2. The eight major civilisations (economic and religious areas *) and economic integration
  3. Economic Area of the African Civilisation
    1. West African Economic Area
    2. Central African Economic Area
    3. Southern African Economic Area
    4. East African Economic Area
    5. Maghrebian Economic Area (Islamic Civilisation)
    6. Interactions of the African Civilisation with other civilisations
  4. Economic Area of the Hindu Civilisation (India)
  5. Economic Area of the Sinic Civilisation (China)
  6. Economic Area of the Buddhist Civilisation
  7. Economic Area of the Islamic Civilisation
    1. Arab Economic Area
    2. Central Eurasian Economic Area
    3. Malay Economic Area
    4. Maghrebian Economic Area
    5. African Economic Area (belonging to African Civilisation)
    6. Economic Integration of the Islamic Civilisation
    7. Interactions of the Islamic Civilisation with other civilisations
  8. Economic Area of the Western Christian Civilisation
    1. European Economic Area (Germany)
    2. American area:
      1. North American Economic Area (the United States)
      2. Latin American Economic Area (Brazil)
      3. Caribbean Economic Area
    3. Economic Area of Oceania
  9. Economic Area of the Orthodox Civilisation (Russia)
  10. Japanese Civilisation
  11. Integration process between and within civilisations.
  12. Economic interrelations among civilisations

(*) Central State (if exist).

Civilisations and integration

Map Civilisations and integration

The module “Civilisations, Religions, and Regional Economic Integration” is studied…
  1. Master in International Business (MIB)
  2. Doctorates (DIB): DIB Ethics, Religions, and Business, Africa, America, Asia, Muslim Countries

Learning materials in En or Es Civilizaciones e Integración Fr Civilisations et Integration Pt Civilizações e integração

Sample of the module - Civilisations, Religions, and Economic Integration
Civilisations, Religions and integration

Subject Description: Economic Integration, Civilisations and Religions:


This study is based on analysing current relations between civilisations and the process of economic integration, which as shown are closely related (regionalism).

According to the British historian Arnold Toynbee, higher religions (such as Islam, Christianity, and Hinduism), through the Universal Church acted as “Chrysalis” favouring the evolution of civilisations.

This new approach developed by EENI based on the study of economic relations between Civilisations will help the student to understand the state of the World better.

This does not mean that the analysis is based on a proselytising vision of any religion, or considering one religion better than other. Nowadays it is clear, the relationship between religions, civilisations influenced by them and the current processes of intra- and inter-civilisation economic integration.

Harmony of Religions

The eight major economic - religious areas.

We are witnessing of the consolidation of a new world economic order; regionalism may be displacing in some aspects to globalisation. The “local and regional” component is every day more critical, especially in the sphere of business and culture. If we look at the world we can identify eight major cultural - religious - economic areas, eight great civilisations usually led by a Central State and they have remained unchanged over the centuries.

Four religions with the largest number of followers (Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism) today represent 77% of humanity. It is estimated that:

  1. 32% of mankind, about 2,200 millions of people is Christian (being also the most globalised religion, average age of all Christians: 30 years)
  2. 23% is Muslim (1,600 million, mainly in Asia and Africa. The average age: twenty-three years)
  3. 15% is Hindu (average age of twenty-six years) and
  4. 7% is Buddhist (average age of 34).

Taoism, Confucianism, Zoroastrianism, Jainism, or Sikhism could never become a Universal Church.

Based on the above we could hypothesise the following economic-religious areas:

Western Christian Civilisation.

From the point of view of culture and economic integration; we can identify three distinct economic and cultural areas:

  1. European
  2. American
    1. North American
    2. Latin American
    3. Caribbean
  3. Oceania

Islamic Civilisation.

1.57 billion people practices Islam (23% of the world's population). Only 15% of Muslims are Arab (the Middle East). 62% of the World's Muslim population lives in Asia and 20% in the MENA region (the Middle East and North Africa). 300 million Muslims live in countries where Islam is not the majority religion.

Islamic economic areas:

  1. Arab Economic Area: Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia…
  2. Central Eurasian Economic Area: Iran, Pakistan, Turkey…
  3. Malay Economic Area: Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia
  4. Maghrebian Economic Area: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia…
  5. African Economic Area, formed by the Muslim-majority African countries (although it will encompass in the African Civilisation)

We can consider two cultural distinct areas.

  1. Sunni. With Saudi Arabia as the central state. Within Sunni we can identify three sub-areas:
    1. Arab (the Middle East)
    2. Malay (South-east Asia)
    3. Turkic (Central Asia)
    4. African
  2. Shiite (Persian). Iran is the Central State.

From the cultural point of view, North Africa, Egypt, Sudan, and Djibouti belongs to the Islamic Civilisation (Sunni) and the African Civilisation. However, from the point of view of economic integration belongs mainly to the African Civilisation.

Sinic Civilisation.

The area of influence of the Sinic Civilisation covers China (Central State), Hong Kong, Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, and Singapore. China is also a BRICS country. In China, Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism are the main religions. However, surely, Confucianism is the religion that characterizes the Sinic civilisation.

Buddhist Civilisation.

All scholarships do not accept the existence of the Buddhist Civilisation. Since our approach we will consider that there is a Buddhist civilisation (or emerging) and can be divided into three economic - cultural areas:

  1. Mahayana area
  2. Theravada area
  3. Lamaist area

Some of these countries can match with the area of influence of the Sinic or the Hindu civilisation.

Hindu Civilisation.

India is the Central State. India is also a BRICS country. The influence of the Hindu Civilisation is notorious in Nepal, Mauritius, Bhutan, and in East Africa.

Orthodox Civilisation.

Orthodox civilisation represents 35% of European Christians (200 million). Russia (Central State) alone accounts for 19% of Christians in Europe and nearly 5% of the world's Christians. The Orthodox civilisation consists of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Montenegro, Macedonia, Russia, Romania, Serbia, and Ukraine.

African Civilisation.

The vast majority of Western historians, except Fernand Braudel, have not considered the existence of an African Civilisation. However, its existence is evident, as demonstrated by the great Senegalese historian Cheikh Anta Diop.

We Trust in Africa

While Africa tends to integration in a continental free trade area; it is clear that there are five distinct areas:

  1. West African Economic Area
  2. Central African Economic Area
  3. Southern African Economic Area
  4. East African Economic Area
  5. Maghrebian Economic Area

Japanese Civilisation.

Some scholars include the Japanese civilisation within the Sinic Civilisation. However, many scholars think Japan itself is a civilisation (a subsidiary of the Sinic Civilisation). This civilisation existed since the first century CE.

World Civilisations

Confucian Ethics

Hinduism Ethics

Five pillars of Islam

Christianity Europe

EU GSP Preferences

Africa Free Trade Area

Central American Common Market

Global Ethics and Business

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