Civilisations and Economic Integration (Master, Doctorate)

EENI Business School & HA University

Module: Civilisations, Religions, and Economic Integration.

  1. Civilisations in a globalised world
  2. The eight major civilisations (economic and religious areas *) and economic integration
  3. Economic Area of African Civilisation
    1. West African Economic Area
    2. Central African Economic Area
    3. Southern African Economic Area
    4. East African Economic Area
    5. Maghrebian Economic Area (Islamic Civilisation)
    6. Interactions of African Civilisation with other civilisations
  4. Economic Area of Hindu Civilisation (India)
  5. Economic Area of Sinic Civilisation (China)
  6. Economic Area of Buddhist Civilisation
  7. Economic Area of Islamic Civilisation
    1. Arab Economic Area
    2. Central Eurasian Economic Area
    3. Malay Economic Area
    4. Maghrebian Economic Area
    5. African Economic Area (belonging to African Civilisation)
    6. Economic Integration of Islamic Civilisation
    7. Interactions of Islamic Civilisation with other civilisations
  8. Economic Area of Western-Christian Civilisation
    1. European Economic Area (Germany)
    2. American area:
      1. North American Economic Area (United States)
      2. Latin American Economic Area (Brazil)
      3. Caribbean Economic Area
    3. Economic Area of Oceania
  9. Economic Area of Orthodox Civilisation (Russia)
  10. Japanese Civilisation
  11. Integration process between and within civilisations
  12. Economic interrelations among civilisations

(*) Central State (if exist).

Civilisations and Economic Integration (Master, Course)

Map Civilisations and integration

The module “Civilisations, Religions, and Regional Economic Integration” is part of the following Online Higher Education Programs taught by EENI Business School & HA University:
  1. Masters: International Business, Religions & Business
  2. Doctorates: Ethics, Religions & Business, Africa, America, Asia, Muslim Countries, Global Trade

Why study Religions and International Business?

Learning materials in Master in International Business in English or Study Master Doctorate Business in Spanish Civilizaciones e Integración Study, Master in International Business in French Civilisations et intégration Masters Foreign Trade in Portuguese Civilizações e integração

Sample of the module - Civilisations, Religions, and Economic Integration
Civilisations, Religions and integration

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Paterson Ngatchou: EENI Academic Coordinator for Anglophone Countries
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Description of the Online Professional Course: Economic Integration, Civilisations and Religions:


This study is based on analysing relationships between current civilizations and the processes of economic integration, which, as can be observed, are closely related (regionalism).

According to the British historian Arnold Toynbee, higher religions (such as Islam, Christianity, and Hinduism), through the Universal Church acted as “Chrysalis” favouring civilisations evolution.

This new approach developed by EENI based on the study of the economic relations between the civilisations will help the student to better understand the state of the World.

This does not mean that the analysis is based on a proselytising vision of any religion, or considering one religion better than other. Nowadays it is clear, the relationship between the religions, civilisations influenced by them and the current processes of intra- and inter-civilisation economic integration.

Harmony of Religions (e-Doctorate)

The eight major economic - religious areas.

We are witnessing of the consolidation of a new world economic order; the regionalism may be displacing in some aspects to globalisation. The “local and regional” component is every day more critical, especially in the sphere of business and culture. If we look at the world we can identify eight major cultural - religious - economic areas, eight great civilisations usually led by a Central State and they have remained unchanged over the centuries.

The four religions with the largest number of followers (Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism) today represent 77% of humanity. It is estimated that:

  1. 32% of mankind, about 2,200 million people is Christian (being also the most globalised religion, average age of all Christians: 30 years)
  2. 23% is Muslim (1,600 million, mainly in Asia and Africa. The average age: twenty-three years)
  3. 15% is Hindu (average age of twenty-six years) and
  4. 7% is Buddhist (average age of 34)

Taoism, Confucianism, Zoroastrianism, Jainism, or Sikhism could never become a Universal Church.

Based on the above we could hypothesise the following economic-religious areas:

Western-Christian Civilisation.

From culture and economic integration; we can identify three distinct economic and cultural areas:

  1. European
  2. American
    1. North American
    2. Latin American
    3. Caribbean
  3. Oceania

Islamic Civilisation.

1.57 billion people practices Islam (23% of the world's population). Only 15% of Muslims are Arab (Middle East). 62% of the World's Muslim population lives in Asia and 20% in the MENA region (the Middle East and North Africa). 300 million Muslims live in countries where Islam is not the majority religion.

Islamic economic areas:

  1. Arab Economic Area: Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia...
  2. Central Eurasian Economic Area: Iran, Pakistan, Turkey...
  3. Malay Economic Area: Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia
  4. Maghrebian Economic Area: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia...
  5. African Economic Area, formed by the Muslim-majority African Countries (although it will encompass in African Civilisation)

We can consider two cultural distinct areas.

  1. Sunni. With Saudi Arabia as the central state. Within Sunni we can identify three sub-areas:
    1. Arab (Middle East)
    2. Malay (Southeast Asia)
    3. Turkic (Central Asia)
    4. African
  2. Shiite (Persian). Iran as the Central State

From a cultural point of view, North Africa, Egypt, Sudan, and Djibouti belongs to Islamic Civilisation (Sunni) and African Civilisation. However, from the economic integration belongs mainly to African Civilisation.

Sinic Civilisation.

The influence area of Sinic Civilisation covers China (Central State), Hong Kong, Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, and Singapore. China is also a BRICS Country. In China, Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism are the main religions. However, surely, Confucianism is the religion that characterises the Sinic Civilisation.

Buddhist Civilisation.

All scholarships do not accept the existence of Buddhist Civilisation. Since our approach we will consider that there is a Buddhist Civilisation (or emerging) and can be divided into three economic - cultural areas:

  1. Mahayana area
  2. Theravada area
  3. Lamaist area

Some of these countries can match with influence area of Sinic or Hindu Civilisation.

Hindu Civilisation.

India is the Central State. India is also a BRICS country. The influence of Hindu Civilisation is notorious on Nepal, Mauritius, Bhutan, and East Africa.

Orthodox Civilisation.

Orthodox Civilisation represents 35% of the European Christians (200 million). Russia (Central State) alone accounts for 19% of Christians in Europe and nearly 5% of the world's Christians. The Orthodox Civilisation consists of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Montenegro, Macedonia, Russia, Romania, Serbia, and Ukraine.

African Civilisation.

The vast majority of Western historians, except Fernand Braudel, have not considered the existence of an African Civilisation. However, its existence is evident, as demonstrated the great Senegalese historian Sheikh Anta Diop.

While Africa tends to integration in a continental free-trade area; it is clear that there are five distinct areas:

  1. West African Economic Area
  2. Central African Economic Area
  3. Southern African Economic Area
  4. East African Economic Area
  5. Maghrebian Economic Area

Japanese Civilisation.

Some scholars include the Japanese civilisation within Sinic Civilisation. However, many scholars think Japan itself is a civilisation (a subsidiary of Sinic Civilisation). This civilisation existed since the first century CE.

World Civilisations


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