Subject: Economic Area of the Orthodox Civilisation
Subject: “The Economic Area of the Orthodox Civilisation” is composed of six parts:
- Introduction to the Orthodox Civilisation
- Influence of Orthodoxy religion
- Economic Profile of Orthodox countries
- Russia as the Central State of the Orthodox Civilisation
- Economic Area of the Orthodox Civilisation. Economic Profile of Orthodox countries
- Economic Integration of the Orthodox Civilisation (Institutions, agreements)
- Interactions of the Orthodox Civilisation with other civilisations
- Economic institutions related to the Orthodox Civilisation
Objectives of the subject “Orthodox Economic Area”:
- To identify the characteristics of the economic area of the Orthodox Civilisation
- To analyse the role of Russia as the Central State of the Orthodox
- To analyse the influence of Orthodoxy in the Orthodox Economic Area
- To know the economic profile of the Orthodox countries
- Analyse the profile of Orthodox businesspeople
- To understand the process of economic integration of the Orthodox Civilisation
- To explore the economic relations of the Orthodox
civilisation with other civilisations (Western, Sinic, Hindu, Islamic, Buddhist, and African)
- To analyse the main economic institutions related to the Orthodox
Subjects - “Economic Area of the Orthodox
1- Introduction to the Orthodoxy and the Orthodox Civilisation.
- Orthodoxy (Christianity)
- Foundations of the Orthodoxy
- The Orthodox Christian Church and the Patriarch of Constantinople
- The Russian Orthodox Church
- Hierarchy in the Orthodox society
- Influence of the ethics of the Orthodoxy in business
- The case of Leo Tolstoy
2- Russia and the Orthodox Civilisation.
- Russia as the Central State of the Orthodox Civilisation
- Influence of Russia in the Central Eurasian region
- Introduction to the Russian Federation
- Russian Economy
- Russian ports
- Foreign Direct Investment in Russia
- Russian payment system
- Russian companies
- Russian Businesspeople
- Vladimir Potanin
- Elena Baturina
- Alexander Lebedev
3- Economic Area of the Orthodox Civilisation.
Economic Profile of the Orthodox countries.
- Introduction to the Economic Area of the Orthodox Civilisation
- Countries with Orthodox majorities: Armenia, Belarus, Bulgaria (*), Cyprus (*), Georgia, Greece (*),
Moldova, Montenegro, Macedonia,
Romania (*), Serbia, and Ukraine.
- Economic Profile of the Orthodox countries
- (*) Orthodox nations with Orthodox majorities of the European Union (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, and Romania) are not discussed on this subject, but they are included, from the point of view of economic integration, in the study of the European
Economic Area of the Western Civilisation because of its membership of the EU.
- Orthodoxy is an important religion in Kazakhstan, Latvia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (30% Orthodox), Albania, Kyrgyzstan, and Estonia, but these countries are not included in this subject.
- The countries of the Coptic area of the Orthodox civilisation such
Egypt (African Civilisation/Islamic) and Ethiopia (African Civilisation) are not included
4- Economic Integration of the Orthodox Civilisation.
There are eighteen Free Trade Agreements (FTA) between the countries of the Orthodox civilisation considered in this analysis.
- Armenia has an FTA with Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine
- Belarus has an FTA with Armenia, Russia, and Ukraine
- Georgia has an FTA with Armenia, Russia, and Ukraine
- Moldova has an FTA with Armenia, Russia, and Ukraine
- Montenegro has an FTA with Ukraine
- Macedonia has an FTA with Ukraine
- Russia has an FTA with Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Serbia, and Ukraine
- Serbia has an FTA with Russia, Ukraine
- Ukraine has an FTA with Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Russia, and Serbia
5- Interactions of the Orthodox Civilisation with other civilisations.
- With the Muslim civilisation:
- Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, and Serbia are members of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) with Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Russia and Belarus are members of the Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) (with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan; Armenia, Moldova, and Ukraine are observers of the EurAsEC)
- Armenia, Belarus, and Russia belong to the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) (with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan)
- Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Armenia, and Moldova belongs to the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan)
- Armenia has Free Trade Agreements with Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan.
- Russia has an FTA with Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan
- Georgia has an FTA with Azerbaijan, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan
- Free Trade Agreement between Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova
- FTA between Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan
- Moldova has an FTA with Kyrgyzstan
- Montenegro has an FTA with Turkey
- Ukraine has FTAs with Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan
- Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine are part of the Regional Organisation for Democracy and Economic Development (GUAM) (with Azerbaijan)
- With the Western Christian Civilisation
- With the European area (non-Orthodox):
- The European Union (EU)
- European Union-Russia
- Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine belongs to the Black Sea Synergy
- Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, and Georgia has an FTA with the EU.
- Armenia and Georgia are part of the European Union-South Caucasus (with Azerbaijan) and are beneficiaries of the Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) of the EU
- Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia are part of the relations European Union-Western Balkans
- Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine are included in the European Neighbourhood Policy
- The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) has FTAs with Montenegro, Ukraine, and Serbia
- With American
- North American Economic Area: no agreements in force
- Latin American Economic Area. Relationships between the Andean Community and Russia.
There is not an FTA between the two regions
- The Caribbean. No Orthodox country has Free Trade Agreements with the Caribbean countries
- With the Oceania area: Russia
has an FTA with New Zealand
- With the African Civilisation: Africa-BRICS Countries (Russia is a
- With the Hindu Civilisation: no agreements in force.
- With the Buddhist Civilisation.
Russia has a Customs Union with Vietnam
- inter-civilisation agreements
- Russia is a member of:
- Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
- Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) (with Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan)
- Council of the Baltic Sea States (Belarus and Ukraine are observers)
- ASEAN-Russia Business Forum
- Armenia, Georgia, Moldova, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine are members of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) (with Albania, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, and Turkey;
Belarus has status of Observer)
- Belarus, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, and Ukraine belongs to the Central European Initiative (CEI)
- Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine belongs to the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
* This subject only explores major Trade Agreements related to the Orthodox civilisation.
7- Economic institutions related to the Orthodox Civilisation.
- Asia-Europe Economic Meeting (ASEM)
- United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
- Council of the Baltic Sea States
- European Investment Bank
- Armenia is a member of the Asian Development Bank
- Armenia, Georgia, and Russia are members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
- Moldova, Montenegro and Serbia belong to the Regional Cooperation Council (RCC)
- Montenegro and Serbia are members of the Adriatic-Ionian Initiative
- United Nations (UN)
- International Monetary Fund (IMF)
- World Trade Organisation (WTO)
Subject Description: The Economic Area of the Orthodox Civilisation.
Between 200 and 300 million people in the World is Orthodox, the second Christian family after Catholicism and before Protestantism.
Russia is undoubtedly the Central State of the Orthodox Civilisation;
Russia is also a BRICS country (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) and a permanent member of the United Nations Security
Since 1741 to 1917 the Russia’s colonial empire it stretched from the Baltic Sea to Alaska, from Poland to part of Turkey controlling the majority of the Orthodox civilisation and Central Asia. Russia as head of the Orthodox
civilisation dominated vast areas of the Christian and the Islamic Civilisation and even a Buddhist country like Mongolia.
After the revolution of 1917; it was created in 1922 the Soviet Union formed by Russia, the Soviet Federal Socialist Republic of Transcaucasia, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, later the Republics of Central Asia, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan were added. After completion of the Second World War, the USSR also would control
Poland, East Germany, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, the Balkans, and the Baltic Republics leading to the beginning of the Cold War.
The collapse of the USSR in 1991 would lead to the independence of these countries. Since then Russia tries to maintain the Leadership in the region. However, in recent years Russia has had military clashes with Georgia or Ukraine. Also, we must take into account the “great game of petrol and gas” that develops in Central Eurasia.
Nowadays no a large economic integration project integrates all
the countries of the Orthodox Civilisation although several Free Trade Agreements between these countries has been established. Perhaps in the next decades; we will observe the emergence of a massive integration project of the Orthodox economies.
Russia and general these Orthodox countries are focusing their international economic relations mainly in two areas:
- Europe, in particular with the European Union
- The Republics of Central Asia
Surely the Orthodox Civilisation is one of the civilisations that less is integrated with other civilisations.
❮ Samples - Orthodox Civilisation ❯
Situation of the Orthodox Civilisation.