Sub-subject: Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) - Islam. Syllabus:
Sample of the sub-subject: Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) - Islamic Civilisation
Sub-Subject Description: Islamic jurisprudence (Fiqh).
Fiqh (jurisprudence) represents the development of the Islamic Law from the various interpretations that have been given to the legal sources of Islam (the Koran, the Hadith)
The Five Pillars of Islam (Profession of Faith, Prayer, Charity (Zakat), Fasting, Pilgrimage to Mecca) mark the obligations (Fard) of the Muslim.
According to the Sharia (and the country), breach of any of these obligations may be legal offence or crime.
Fiqh or jurisprudence is represented by the Sunnis, in four schools:
It is the largest of the schools, approximately 45% of all
Sunni Muslims follow the Hanafi School of Fiqh. In general, the Hanafi
School is the most open and flexible. The main Hanafi countries: Albania,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Pakistan, India, China, and Russia.
The Maliki School of jurisprudence is part of the official legal codes of the State of Kuwait, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates.
The main Maliki countries are Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Mauritania, Kuwait, Oman, Libya, Sudan, and Egypt.
The School Fiqh-al-Chafiy is recognised as the official school of the governments of Brunei and Malaysia. The Indonesian Government used this law
school for the development of the Sharia. The main countries are Egypt, South of the Arabian Peninsula, Tanzania, Kenya, Djibouti, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
The Hambali School is considered the more puritanical and strict of the Islam, the interpretation of the Koran and tradition must always be literal, not having a margin for interpretation. It has expanded from the Arabian Peninsula and the Gulf Emirates Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Yemen.