EENI Global Business School

Non-tariff Measures (Course)



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Online Course: Sanitary Measures, Import License, Technical Barriers to Trade (6 ECTS, Masters, Doctorate, International Business, English)

Non-tariff Measures to Trade

The Course “Non-tariff Measures to Trade” taught by EENI Global Business School consists of two modules:


  1. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in International Trade
    1. Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
  2. Technical Barriers to Trade
    1. Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
  3. Pre-shipment Inspection
    1. Agreement on Preshipment Inspection
  4. Contingent trade-protective measures (Anti-dumping Measures, Safeguards)
    1. Agreement on Safeguards
  5. Non-automatic Import licensing, quotas and prohibitions
  6. Other Non-tariff measures: Price-control (including additional taxes and charges), Finance Measures, affecting the competition, Trade-related investment measures
  7. Restrictions, distribution, post-sales services, Government procurement
  8. Subsidies (excluding export subsidies)
  9. Rules of origin
  10. Export-related measures
  11. Other formalities

Trade Facilitation Programs. TFA Agreement




The objectives of the module 1 are the following:

  1. To know how to identify and distinguish the non-tariff measures (technical and non-technical) in Foreign Trade
  2. To evaluate the possible impact they may have on exports / imports
  3. To familiarise the student with the use of the “UNCTAD International Classification Manual of Non-Tariff Measures”
  4. To know how to act before a non-tariff measure implemented by a country


  1. Introduction to the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
    1. Industrial property
    2. Copyright and rights related to the copyright
    3. Infringement of the intellectual property rights
  2. The role of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
  3. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of the WTO
    1. The Pillars of the TRIPS Agreement
  4. Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (copyright)
  5. Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (patents, industrial designs, etc.)
  6. Case study: Intellectual property rights in the USMCA/NAFTA 2.0


The objectives of the module 2 are the following:

  1. To understand the key concepts related to the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
  2. To learn the importance and the pillars of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of the intellectual property rights (TRIPS) of the WTO
  3. To know the role of the World Intellectual Property Organization and the different international intellectual property registration systems (Lisbon, Madrid, The Hague...)

Enroll Enrol / Request for Information

Online Student Master in International Business


  1. Credits: 6 ECTS Credits
  2. Duration: six
    weeks It is recommended to dedicate about twelve hours of study per week following a flexible schedule. It is possible to reduce the duration dedicating more hours a week
  3. Open Online Enrollment
  4. Download the syllabus of the Course (PDF)

Languages: Masters, Doctorate, International Business, English

  1. Also
    available in For improving the international communication skills, the student has free access to the learning materials in these languages (free multilingual training).
    Study Master Doctorate in International Business in Spanish Medidas no arancelarias Study Doctorate in International Business in French Mesures non tarifaires Masters Foreign Trade in Portuguese Medidas não-tarifárias

The course includes the Market Access Tool:
Non-tariff Measures to Trade Market Access

Sample - Non-tariff Measures to Trade:
Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Conformity assessment. International Trade

EENI Students - Doctorate, Master in International Business, Foreign Trade


This course contains exercises that are evaluated, which the student must work out and pass to obtain the Diploma of the Course “Non-tariff Measures to Trade” issued by EENI Global Business School.

The course belongs to the following Higher Education Programs taught by EENI:

Diploma: Foreign Trade.

Diploma in International Trade

Course: Foreign Trade Management.

Foreign Trade Management

Masters: International Business, Foreign Trade, International Transport.

Masters in International Business and Foreign Trade (MIB)

Doctorate: World Trade.

Doctorate in International Business (DIB) Online



According to the definition of the UNCTAD, the Non-tariff measures are:

“... Those political measures, different from the Customs tariffs, that can economically affect on foreign trade in good, modifying Export prices, transactions, or both.”

The Non-tariff measures can distort Foreign Trade, and even harm exporters, importers, companies, and even the final consumer.

Any agent of the value chains of the foreign trade (exporter, importer, distributor, customs or logistics agent, consultant...) must know how to identify these measures and know the possible impact they may have.

The UNCTAD proposes a classification of the different types of measures (16 chapters).

Technical measures:

  1. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS)
  2. Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)
  3. Pre-shipment Inspection and other formalities

Non-technical measures:

  1. Contingent trade-protective measures
  2. Non-automatic licensing, quotas, prohibitions and quantity-control measures other than Sanitary and phytosanitary measures and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)
  3. Price-control measures, including additional taxes and charges
  4. Finance measures
  5. Measures affecting the competition
  6. Foreign Trade-related investment measures
  7. Distribution restrictions in a market
  8. Restrictions on post-sales services
  9. Subsidies (excluding export subsidies)
  10. Government procurement restrictions in a certain market
  11. Measures related to Intellectual Property
  12. Rules of origin

Finance Measures

They are all those non-tariff measures whose objective is to regulate access to foreign currency for imports. They increase the import cost.

  1. Advance payment requirements. They can be: advanced import deposit, cash requirement, advance payment of the customs duties, refundable deposit
  2. Multiple exchange rates
  3. Official currency allocation. Bank authorization (Central Bank of the country of the importer). licenses linked to unofficial currencies
  4. Regulations concerning terms of payment for imports (import credit and financing)

Measures affecting the competition (special preferences or privileges).

  1. State-trading enterprises
  2. Compulsory use of national services (transport, insurance)

Trade-related investment measures:

  1. Measures of local content (minimum quantity of product manufactured in the country of the importer)
  2. Trade balancing measures (import restriction)

Distribution restrictions (obtaining licenses or certification, distribution services regulations).

  1. Geographical restrictions
  2. Restrictions for certain resellers

Restrictions related to post-sales services

Subsidies

Government procurement restrictions (preference to national suppliers).

Intellectual Property (patents, trademarks, copyright...).

Rules of origin

Export-related measures:

  1. Export-license, quota and prohibition restrictions (include investments)
    1. Export prohibitions
    2. Export quotas (quotas)
    3. License requirements (permission, authorization) to export
    4. Export registration requirements
  2. Exports of state companies
  3. Export price-control measures
  4. Measures on re-exports (cross-border trade)
  5. Export taxes and charges
  6. Export technical measures (technical specifications, conformity assessment)
    1. Inspection requirement (Quality control)
    2. Certification required by the exporting country
  7. Export subsidies
  8. Export Credits

Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

Source: “International Classification of Non-tariff Measures” (UNCTAD).

Customs and WTO.



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