The self-reference criterion (James
A Lee) as an unconscious reference to ones own
cultural values, experiences and knowledge as a basis for decisions. The self-reference criterion
impedes the ability to assess a foreign market in its true light.
Edward Hall divides cultures into two types, according to its
- High-context culture. Context rather than content is of significance. Fewer legal
documents are used in these cultures, where one's word is
one's bond and this makes negotiations a lot slower.
- Low-context culture. With clear and explicit messages in which
written words transmit most of the information. Legal documents are considered
Europe and the
United States are
examples of these cultures. Social position is also a dominant factor and
knowledge of it a must for negotiation. Japan and
Arab countries are examples of these cultures.
Hofstede Theory is based on the assumption that countries can be compared with each other by rating the following parameters:
- Power Distance Orientation (distance from power)
- Individual vs. Collective Orientation
- Dominant Values Orientation (Masculinity or feminity)
- Uncertainty Avoidance Orientation (Distance from uncertainty)
- Short Term vs. Long Term Orientation
How to negotiate successfully in...
Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Uruguay, Venezuela
- Africa: D.R. Congo, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal
- MENA and Middle East:
Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates.
- Europe: Czech Republic, Portugal, Russia
- Asia: China, India, Indonesia, Hong Kong,
Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, Vietnam