African regional integration (Bachelor's Degree Africa)

EENI- School of International Business

Optional Subject - African regional integration: towards the African continental free-trade area (Bachelor's Degree in Inter-African Business, e-learning, Sixth semester, optional)


Bachelor's Degree in Inter-African Business

Subject (optional) - “African regional integration: towards the African continental free-trade area (CFTA)” (8 ECTS) - Bachelor's Degree in Inter-African Business (Sixth semester)

Regional Integration in Africa

The main objective of the Optional Subject “African regional integration” is to understand the irreversible process of African Integration whose ultimate goal is the creation of the “African continental free-trade area”.

The specific objectives are the following:

  1. To understand the fundamental role of the African Union, Economic Commission for Africa (CEA), African Development Bank and regional economic communities (REC) and the overlapping ( “Spaghetti bowl”) in the process of African Integration
  2. To understand the four pillars of regional integration of Africa
  3. To understand the concepts of the African Economic Community, the African Customs Union and the future “African Common Market
  4. To know the strengths and weaknesses of the African Integration
  5. To know the state of the integration regional African
  6. To determine the barriers to Intra-African Trade
  7. To know the implications of the Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade (25 % of Intra-African Trade)
  8. To understand the integration of the African Financial system and the role of Cross-border banking
  9. To learn the ICT advantages applied to the inter-African Trade
  10. To understand the role of the infrastructures and ICT (“African Mobile Revolution”) in the process of African Integration
  11. To know the PIDA (Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa)
  12. To evaluate the costs of International Trade (imports/exports) in Africa
  13. To know how the African companies can take advantage of the African value chains
  14. To know two good examples of integration: the OHADA (Organisation for the Harmonisation of Business Law in Africa) and the Tripartite Agreement (COMESA-EAC-SADC)
  15. To know the paths towards the African Continental Free-Trade Area (ZLE), the advantages for Africa and the possible stages of the ZLE

Syllabus of the Program - introduction to the African regional integration

1- Introduction to the African Integration.

  1. History of the process of African regional integration
  2. Treaty of Abuja
  3. Towards the African Economic Community (CEA)
  4. Trade agreements and Protocols on Regional Integration

2- Regional Economic Communities (REC) in Africa (summary).

  1. CEN-SAD (Community of Sahel-Saharan States)
  2. TCOMESA (Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa)
  3. EAC (East African Community)
  4. ECCAS (Economic Community of West African States Central)
  5. ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States)
  6. IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development)
  7. SADC (Southern African Development Community)
  8. AMU (Arab Maghreb Union)
  9. Introduction to the Tripartite Free Trade Agreement COMESA-EAC-SADC

3- Other African Economic Organisations (summary).

  1. SACU (Southern African Customs Union)
  2. MRU (Mano River Union)
  3. COI (Indian Ocean Commission)
  4. WAEMU (West African Economic and Monetary Union)
  5. WAMZ (West African Monetary Zone)
  6. ICGLR (International Conference on the Great Lakes Region)
  7. CEMAC (Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa)

4- The four pillars of the African regional integration

  1. Facts and figures about African regional integration
  2. Macroeconomic Policy Convergence, Financial, and Monetary Integration
  3. Harmonisation of Sectoral Policies
  4. Trade and Market Integration
  5. Peace, Security, Stability, and Governance

Syllabus of the Program - State of the African regional integration:

  1. Assessing African regional integration (ARIA)
  2. Developments in the major areas across the Regional Economic Communities
  3. Macroeconomic policy convergence
  4. Mainstreaming regional integration
  5. Free movement of people and right of establishment
  6. Physical African integration
  7. Developments at inter-REC and continental levels
  8. Trans-African Corridors initiatives
  9. Harmonising Rules of origin across Africa
  10. Market Access and Services
  11. Trade Facilitation Measures and Programs
  12. Best Practices in African regional integration

Syllabus of the Program: Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade

1- Introduction to Intra-African Trade.

  1. Structure of the African Trade
  2. Barriers to Intra-African Trade
  3. Diversification of the African exports
  4. Lack of infrastructures
  5. Free-Trade Areas
  6. Cross-border trade
  7. Trade liberalisation
  8. Trade barriers
  9. African Customs
  10. Information and communication technologies
  11. Information networks
  12. High costs of doing business in Africa
  13. Financial markets and access to credit
  14. Currencies: Multiplicity and non-convertible. The case of the CFA Franc and the South African Rand
  15. Free movement of persons, labour and capitals

2- Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade.

  1. Trade Policy
  2. Trade Facilitation
  3. Trade and infrastructures
  4. Trade Finance
  5. Information on Trade
  6. Factor Market Integration
  7. Towards the African continental free-trade area

Objectives of the Program “Intra-African Trade”:

  1. To know the structure of the African Trade
  2. To evaluate the barriers to Intra-African Trade
  3. To analyse the programs of foreign trade liberalisation
  4. To understand the role of the African Customs
  5. To know the Action Plan for Boosting Intra-African Trade to increase 25 % the Intra-African Trade of the Economic Commission for Africa (CEA)

Syllabus of the Program: Information and communication technologies (ICT), Trade and African regional integration.

  1. Information and communication technologies, trade and African regional integration
  2. e-Commerce: The next growth frontier of Africa
  3. Initiatives of the Regional Economic Communities
  4. ICT and trade facilitation in Africa
  5. Automated System for Customs Data
  6. Single windows in Africa
  7. Case Study: Kenya Ports Authority and Kilindini Waterfront
  8. Automated Terminal Operating System
  9. ICT and transport corridors
  10. ICT and payment systems
  11. Cross-border mobile payments
  12. Case Study:
    1. Nigerian online retailers (DealDey, Konga, Jumia)
    2. East African Payment System

Syllabus of the Program: Regional African Financial Integration.

  1. Introduction to the Regional African Financial Integration
  2. Trends in the African Regional Financial Integration
  3. Case Study: The largest African banking groups
    1. ECOBANK (Togo)
    2. BMCE - the Moroccan Bank of Foreign Trade (Morocco)
    3. Attijariwafa Bank
  4. Payment systems in Africa
  5. Cross-border banking
  6. Risks of Cross-border banking
  7. Mobile banking services
  8. Development of capital markets
  9. Regional Financial Infrastructure
  10. Agreements on monetary cooperation of the Regional Economic Communities
  11. Sending of funds by mobile phone in Africa
  12. Case Study: Vodafone Money Transfer (M-PESA) in Africa
  13. West African Development Bank of the ECOWAS
  14. Financial system of the WAEMU
  15. Case Study:
    1. United Bank of Africa (Nigeria)
    2. Standard Bank (South Africa)

Syllabus of the Program: Infrastructures and telecommunications in Africa.

1- Infrastructures in Africa.

  1. African Infrastructure Knowledge Programme
  2. Infrastructure Consortium for Africa
  3. Investment trends in infrastructures in Africa
  4. Information and communication technologies
  5. Growth of information and communication technologies (ICT)
  6. African Mobile Revolution
  7. Irrigation
  8. Power
  9. Sanitation
  10. Water Resources and Supply
  11. Analysis of infrastructures in Africa
  12. Infrastructures and African economic growth
  13. Infrastructures and poverty reduction
  14. Africa’s institutional framework for infrastructure
  15. Urbanisation and services distribution
  16. Regional integration and infrastructures

2- Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA).

  1. Introduction to the Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa
  2. Key sectors:
    1. Energy
    2. Transport
    3. Information and communication technologies
  3. PIDA’s outcomes: development through the regional integration
  4. Costs and investments

Syllabus of the Program: African value chains.

  1. Introduction to the African value chains
  2. Opportunities for the African companies
  3. African Growth Poles
  4. How can the African enterprises take advantage of the value chains?
  5. FDI Cooperation
  6. Trade Facilitation
  7. Rules of Origin and transport costs
  8. Export costs in Africa
  9. One-stop border post
  10. Case Study:
    1. Cocoa Value Chain in West Africa
    2. Shoprite (the African largest food distributor)

Syllabus of the Program: African continental free-trade area (CFTA)

  1. Introduction to the African continental free-trade area
  2. Why Africa needs the Continental Free-Trade Area?
  3. Theories of the Free-Trade Areas
  4. Towards the African free-trade area
  5. Main objectives of the African continental free-trade area
  6. Intra-African Trade
  7. Advantages of the continental free-trade area
  8. Empirical Impact and Analysis of the African Continental Free-Trade Area: economic gains and losses
  9. Potential scenarios to achieve the African continental free-trade area:
    1. Free-Trade Area of the Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA, SADC, EAC, IGAD) - Tripartite Agreement
    2. Free-Trade Area of the Northern and Western Africa (ECOWAS, CEN-SAD, ECCAS and AMU)
  10. Economic impacts of the Continental Customs Union
  11. Perspectives of the CFTA
  12. Road Map and Architecture of the African Continental Free-Trade Area
  13. Main bodies of the African Continental Free-Trade Area

Objectives of the Program “African continental free-trade area (CFTA)”:

  1. To understand the objectives and role of the agencies of the African continental free-trade area
  2. To evaluate the advantages and economic impact for the African countries of the African continental free-trade area
  3. To analyse the two possible stages for the realisation of the African Continental Free-Trade Area
  4. To know the roadmap and architecture of the African continental free-trade area

We Trust in Africa

  1. ECTS = European Transfer and Accumulation System
  2. CECT = Credit of Capitalisable and Transferable Evaluation (CAMES)

Samples: African regional integration - towards the African continental free-trade area (CFTA) (Bachelor's Degree in Inter-African Business, e-learning, Sixth semester, optional)

African Free-Trade Area

Intra-African Trade

Department of Trade (the African Union)

Tripartite Agreement COMESA-EAC-SADC

Pillars of the African Integration

Facts Integration Africa

Language of the subject (optional) “African regional integration: towards the African continental free-trade area (CFTA)” of the Bachelor's Degree in Inter-African Business (Sixth semester): English or Spanish Licenciatura África French Licence Afrique Portuguese Bachelor's Degree Africa



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